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16th World Congress on Vascular Dementia and Neurodegenerative Diseases , will be organized around the theme Share the vision on Vascular Dementia and Neurodegenerative diseases

Vascular Dementia Congress 2020 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Vascular Dementia Congress 2020

Submit your abstract to any of the mentioned tracks.

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Dementia is a chronic or persistent disorder of the mental ability process caused by brain diseases or injuries marked due to personality changes, memory disorders and impaired reasoning. Dementia is not a specific disease. It's a group of symptoms related with a decline in memory or other thinking ability skills enough to reduce a person's ability activities. Various kinds of dementia are associated with particular types of brain cell damage in particular regions of the brain.

Dementia is often incorrectly referred to as "senility" or "senile dementia," which reflects the formerly widespread but incorrect belief that serious mental decline is a normal part of aging.

Dementia is a syndrome – usually of a chronic or progressive nature – in which there is deterioration in cognitive function (i.e. the ability to process thought) beyond what might be expected from normal ageing. It affects memory, thinking, orientation, comprehension, calculation, learning capacity, language, and judgement. Consciousness is not affected. The impairment in cognitive function is commonly accompanied, and occasionally preceded, by deterioration in emotional control, social behaviour, or motivation.

Dementia in stages refers how far a person’s dementia has been progressed. It defines a person’s disease stage helping physicians to determine the best treatment approach and aid communication between health providers and caregivers. Sometimes the stage is simply referred to as “Early stage”, “Middle stage” or “Late-stage” dementia, but often a more exact stage is assigned, based on a person’s symptoms.

Early stage: the early stage of dementia is often overlooked, because the onset is gradual.

Middle stage: as dementia progresses to the middle stage, the signs and symptoms become clearer and more restricting.

Late stage: the late stage of dementia is one of near total dependence and inactivity. Memory disturbances are serious and the physical signs and symptoms become more obvious.

A more exact stage is assigned, based on a person’s symptoms.

•           Global Deterioration Scale for Assessment of Primary Degenerative Dementia (GDS)

•           Cognitive Decline

•           Very Mild Cognitive Decline

•           Mild Cognitive Decline

•           Moderate Cognitive Decline

•           Moderately Severe Cognitive Decline

•           Severe Cognitive Decline (Middle Dementia)

•           Very Severe Cognitive Decline (Late Dementia)

•           Functional Assessment Staging (FAST)

•           Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) – No dementia, Moderate, Mild, Severe.

Vascular dementia, also known as multi-infarct dementia, is the second most common dementia type in older people. But there are many other conditions that can cause symptoms of dementia, including some that are reversible, such as thyroid problems and vitamin deficiencies. It happens when part of the brain doesn't get enough blood carrying the oxygen and nutrients it needs. In vascular dementia, changes in thinking skills sometimes occur suddenly following strokes that block major brain blood vessels. Thinking problems also may begin as mild changes that worsen gradually as a result of multiple minor strokes or other conditions that affect smaller blood vessels, leading to cumulative damage.

Vascular dementia symptoms can vary widely, depending on the severity of the blood vessel damage and the part of the brain affected. Memory loss may or may not be a significant symptom depending on the specific brain areas where blood flow is reduced. Symptoms may be most obvious when they happen soon after a major stroke

Factors that increase your risk of heart disease and stroke — including diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol and smoking — also raise your vascular dementia risk. Controlling these factors may help lower your chances of developing vascular dementia.

Vascular dementia occurs when vessels that supply blood to the brain become blocked or narrowed. Strokes take place when the supply of blood carrying oxygen to the brain is suddenly cut off. However, not all people with stroke will develop vascular dementia.

Vascular dementia can occur over time as "silent" strokes pile up. Quite often, vascular dementia draws attention to itself only when the impact of so many strokes adds up to significant disability. Avoiding and controlling risk factors such as diabetes, high blood pressure, smoking, and high cholesterol can help curb the risk of vascular dementia.

Symptoms of vascular dementia depend on what part of the brain is affected and to what extent. Like Alzheimer's disease, the symptoms of vascular dementia are often mild for a long time. They may include:

•           Problems with short-term memory

•           Wandering or getting lost in familiar surroundings

•           Laughing or crying at inappropriate times

•           Trouble concentrating, planning, or following through on activities

•           Trouble managing money

•           Inability to follow instructions

•           Loss of bladder or bowel control

•           Hallucinations or delusions

Symptoms that suddenly get worse often signal a stroke. Doctors look for symptoms that progress in noticeable stages to diagnose vascular dementia. Alzheimer's, by comparison, progresses at a slow, steady pace. Another clue is impaired coordination or balance. In vascular dementia, problems walking or balancing can happen early. With Alzheimer's, these symptoms usually occur late in the disease.

 

Lewy body is also known as dementia with Lewy bodies, with Lewy body dementia is the second most common type of progressive dementia after Alzheimer's disease dementia. Protein deposits, called Lewy bodies, develop in nerve cells in the brain regions involved in thinking, memory and movement (motor control). People with Lewy body dementia have a progressive decline in their memory and ability to think; similar to Alzheimer’s disease. However, the cognitive ability or alertness of a person with Lewy body dementia is more likely to fluctuate from one moment to the next, which is not like Alzheimer’s disease. They also often have visual hallucinations (seeing things that aren’t there) and delusions (believing something that is not true). On the surface, people with Lewy body dementia often have problems with movement that resemble Parkinson’s disease. This is because the same structures of the brain are affected in Lewy body dementia and Parkinson’s disease.

•           Causes of Lewy Body Dementia

•           Symptoms of Lewy Body Dementia

•           Diagnosing Lewy Body

•           Dementia Cholinesterase Inhibitors

•           Diagnosing dementia (general)

•           Treating dementia

There's no specific test that confirms you have vascular dementia. Diagnosis of vascular dementia is done by medical history for stroke or disorders of the heart and blood vessels, and results of tests that may help clarify your diagnosis.

•Lab tests

Lab diagnosis of vascular dementia is done by testing blood pressure, cholesterol, blood sugar or by testing thyroid disorders and vitamin deficiencies

•Brain imaging

Images of your brain can pinpoint visible abnormalities caused by strokes, blood vessel diseases, tumors or trauma that may cause changes in thinking and reasoning.

•Computerized tomography (CT) scan

A CT scan can provide information about your brain's structure; tell whether any regions show shrinkage; and detect evidence of strokes, ministrokes (transient ischemic attacks), blood vessel changes or tumors.

•Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

An MRI uses radio waves and a strong magnetic field to produce detailed images of your brain. MRIs are generally the preferred imaging test because MRI can provide even more detail than CT scans about strokes, ministrokes and blood vessel abnormalities.

•Carotid ultrasound

This procedure uses high-frequency sound waves to determine whether your carotid arteries which run up through either side of your neck to supply blood to the brain which shows signs of narrowing as a result of plaque deposits or structural problems. This test may include a Doppler ultrasound, which shows the movement of blood through arteries in addition to structural features.

•Amyloid Imaging in Dementia

Amyloid imaging is a technique performed in nuclear medicine. It uses PET ligands that allow in vivo detection of amyloid plaques, a core pathologic feature of Alzheimer disease and dementia.

Caregivers of dementia patients need to understand dementia so that they can understand what the patient is going through. They need to know about underlying diseases, and how these may affect the progress of dementia. They also need to know what sort of behavior to expect. Understanding these helps them plan for their caregiving and to cope with the situation effectively, and with less stress.

People with Dementia and vascular dementia have different mental element shortfalls that incorporate every memory hindrance, that influences the adaptability to discover new data or review data already learned, and one or extra of the ensuing side effects aphasia, apraxia, agnosia, or official brokenness to such an extent that the mental element shortages adversely affect social or action working with a major decrease in past abilities. Furthermore, people with dementia commonly experience the ill effects of comorbid conditions that extra confuse mind and block best results. Along these lines, creating caregiving techniques individuals with vascular dementia is pressing, given this expanding commonness and consequently the related weight that dementia places not just on the people, however on the parental figures, relations, and thusly the assets of the human services framework. Traditional perspectives bearing on geriatric nursing ordinarily paint a picture of the care as being moderate paced certain and less requesting than intense care. Be that as it may, care of the matured, and especially those with vascular dementia, is normally confounded, unusual, and flimsy.

•           Dementia nursing care plan

•           Music therapy in dementia

•           Physiotherapy for dementia

•           Clinical features of dementia

•           Therapeutic interventions in dementia

Treatment of dementia depends on its cause. In the case of most progressive dementias, including Alzheimer's disease, there is no cure and no treatment that slows or stops its progression. But there are drug treatments that may temporarily improve symptoms. The same medications used to treat Alzheimer's are among the drugs sometimes prescribed to help with symptoms of other types of dementias. Non-drug therapies can also alleviate some symptoms of dementia.

•           Psychopharmacological treatment

•           Psychopharmacological treatment

•           Advanced drugs for dementia

•           Cognitive behavioral therapy

•           Family therapy in nursing

Treatment of dementia begins with the treatment of the underlying disease, where possible. The underlying causes of nutritional, hormonal, tumour-caused or drug-related dementia may be reversible to some extent. For many other diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), no cure has yet been discovered. However, improvement of cognitive and behavioural symptoms can be achieved through a combination of appropriate medications and other treatments, including psychotherapy.

There are also a number of therapies and practical measures that can help make everyday living easier for someone with dementia.

These include:

•occupational therapy to identify problem areas in everyday life, such as getting dressed, and help with working out practical solutions

•speech and language therapy to help improve any communication problems

•physiotherapy to help with movement difficulties

•psychological therapies, such as cognitive stimulation (activities and exercises designed to improve memory, problem-solving skills and language ability)

•relaxation techniques, such as massage and music or dance therapy

•social interaction, leisure activities and other dementia activities, such as memory cafes (drop-in sessions for people with memory problems and their carers to get support and advice)

•home modifications, such as removing loose carpets and potential trip hazards, ensuring the home is well lit, and adding grab bars and handrails

Dementia is a clinical syndrome with abnormal degree of memory loss and impaired ability to recall events from the past often characterized by Alzheimer's disease. Recent advances in the understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying Alzheimer's disease and other cognitive deficits have pointed to novel strategies for drug development. Animal models have contributed noticeably to these advances and are an indispensible part in the evaluation of therapeutics.

The critical evaluations of current rodent models of dementia and discussion about their role in drug discovery and development have been carried out. Since dementia has multiple pathophysiological mechanisms, we have tried to provide a detailed description of various types of animal models which would depict different pathophysiological stages and causes of dementia. This review aims to better understand the prognosis, biochemical, and behavioral alterations that occur during dementia and hence facilitate drug discovery and development.

 

 

 

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Neurodegenerative disease primarily affects the neurons in the human brain. Neurons are the building blocks of the nervous system which includes the brain and spinal cord. Neurons normally don’t reproduce or replace themselves, so when they become damaged or die they cannot be replaced by the body. Neurodegenerative diseases are incurable and debilitating conditions that result in progressive degeneration and / or death of nerve cells. This causes problems with movement (called ataxias), or mental functioning (called dementias). Dementias are responsible for the greatest burden of neurodegenerative diseases, with Alzheimer’s representing approximately 60-70% of dementia cases.

•           Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and other dementias

•           Parkinson’s disease (PD) and PD-related disorders

•           Prion disease

•           Motor neurone diseases (MND)

•           Huntington’s disease (HD)

•           Spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA)

•           Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA)

It is a branch of Medical Sciences majorly deals with Neuro tumors. Deals with Studies related to Brain and Spinal cord neoplasms. Neuro-oncology and Pediatric Neuro-oncology are the two different Concepts that differentiate the determining methodology of Neuro tumors. Neuro-oncology mainly includes especially related topics like Radiation therapy, Neurosurgery, Neuroimaging, social, Psychological, Neuropathology and psychiatric aspects.

Neuro-oncology is the study of brain and spinal cord neoplasms, many of which are very dangerous and life-threatening (astrocytoma, glioma, glioblastoma multiforme, ependymoma, pontine glioma, and brain stem tumors are among the many examples of these). Among the malignant brain cancers, gliomas of the brainstem and pons, glioblastoma multiforme, and high-grade (highly anaplastic) astrocytoma are among the worst.

The CNS consists of the brain and spinal cord. The brain is protected by the skull (the cranial cavity) and the spinal cord travels from the back of the brain, down the center of the spine, stopping in the lumbar region of the lower back. The brain and spinal cord are both housed within a protective triple-layered membrane called the meninges.

•           Brain Stem Tumors

•           Spine Diseases

•           Glioblastoma

•           Meningioma

•           Malignant Brain Cancers and Brain Metastasis

•           Pediatric Neuro Oncology

•           Astrocytoma

•           Neurotoxicity

Neuropharmacology is the scientific study of the effects of drugs on the nervous system. Its primary focus is the actions of medications for psychiatric and neurologic disorders as well as those of drugs of abuse. Drugs that act on the nervous system, including antidepressant, antianxiety, anticonvulsant, and antipsychotic agents, are among the most widely prescribed medications.

Neuropharmacology is the study of the effects of drugs on the nervous system, with the goal of developing compounds that offer therapeutic benefit in humans with psychiatric and neurological disease. We believe that an understanding of a drug’s action requires an integrated knowledge of the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which the drug exerts its effects upon brain circuitry and ultimately human behaviour.

Consequently, the research conducted within the department encompasses many aspects of modern molecular and cellular neuroscience taking full advantage of modern research techniques such as opto-genetics, high-resolution cellular imaging, STEM cell biology and electrophysiology.

Vascular cognitive impairment is a decline in thinking abilities caused by disease that damages the brain’s blood vessels. Vascular disease may cause cognitive impairment on its own, and can also contribute to impairments in thinking and behaviour in a person with another brain disease such as Alzheimer’s.

Vascular cognitive impairment refers to all forms of cognitive disorder associated with cerebrovascular disease, regardless of the specific mechanisms involved. It encompasses the full range of cognitive deficits from mild cognitive impairment to dementia. In principle, any of the multiple causes of clinical stroke can cause vascular cognitive impairment.

Vascular brain injury results in loss of structural and functional connectivity and, hence, compromise of functional networks within the brain. Vascular cognitive impairment is common both after stroke and in stroke-free individuals presenting to dementia clinics, and vascular pathology frequently coexists with neurodegenerative pathology, resulting in mixed forms of mild cognitive impairment or dementia.

Therapeutic targets are bio molecules maybe a nucleic acid or a protein whose biological activity can be modified by a drug candidate. In some cases of Dementia, it is reported that proteins are the cause for the disease. For example the accumulation of amyloid protein in the regions of Brain acts as a major factor for the disorder; hence it can be a therapeutic target. Therapeutic targets play an important role in identifying the potential drug candidates. Hence the conference provides the discussion sessions to reveal the targets for drug design process.

•           Beta-amyloid Precursor Protein

•           Action of Protein tau

•           Role of Acetylcholinesterase and Inhibition

•           N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor as target

•           Processing of Prion Protein

Rigorous clinical trials on Dementia drugs are continuing in USA and UK under the guidance of Alzheimer's society and it is reported that there is very less participation of people. The most of drugs are in second and third phases. Most of clinical trials are done in specific areas are amyloid beta plaques, the immune system, tau tangles. New medications for Dementia being developed in 2014/2015, 31% were named symptoms modifying. There are many developments are going on in Drug discovery of Dementia as old treatments are unable to stop the progression of Dementia. Most associations share their exploration on new medications for Dementia in Dementia conferences to get higher esteem to their items. This gets to be distinctly gainful to different geriatric doctors to redesign themselves with such medications and progressing possibilities by going to Dementia conferences. Such Dementia meetings will help researchers to know target areas for Drug development in Dementia and work towards it and also Dementia conferences exhibit clinical trial medications and offers positivity to discover new approaches in curing Dementia

•           Development of Re-purposed Drugs

•           Beta-amyloid Polymerization and Inflammation Inhibitor

•           Prevention Trials

•           Anticonvulsant Drugs for Treatment

•           Vaccine Development against Beta-Amyloid

•           Animal Models for Toxicology Studies

The Immunotherapy treats the Immune system in Injury and repair during wide range of Neurological disorders, Inflammatory and Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous system such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Neuromyelitis Optical (NMO) and several Brain Tumor conditions. There were numerous Radiological studies to improve Diagnosis and treatment of these diseases. The main focus is to develop the so-called Neuroprotective (nerve cell protecting) treatment approaching and establishing Modern examination procedures such as MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging), OCT (Optical Coherence Tomography) and Motion Analysis.

Neuroradiology uses primary imaging modalities including computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to focus on Endovascular or minimally invasive diagnosis and characterization of abnormalities of the Central Nervous System or head and neck lesions such as Tumors, Aneurysms, Vascular malformations, or Stroke. It involves different types of Imaging Studies like Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) for characterization of various Neurological disorders.

Neurotoxicity is considered as a major cause of neurodegenerative disorders. Most drugs of abuse have non-negligible neurotoxic impacts a significant number of which are essentially interceded by a few dopaminergic and glutamatergic neurotransmitter frameworks. Neurotoxicity and formative neurotoxicities are imperative antagonistic wellbeing impacts of several ecological contaminants and word related synthetic substances, regular poisons and pharmaceutical medications.

Alzheimer’s is a neurological cerebrum issue. This Alzheimer’s sickness is the most widely recognized type if dementia, the gathering of scatters that will disable the mind working. Memory loss is the most punctual indications for this disease, reduces the thinking capacities and changes in identity or contact. Thus, Vascular Dementia 2019 may give helpful focuses to the Alzheimer’s sickness and detail part of neurological science.

Age-related memory impairment and dementia can be stated apart in several ways. Also, in adults younger than 60 will be affected rare with dementia, but dementia becomes increasingly common after 60 ages. Understanding the back-and-forth between psychology and brain changes is a vital step in the direction of improving how we age and auxiliary to healthy ageing in society. The Vascular Dementia 2019 aims to describe how our inward lives changes as we age, both as healthy and disease.

A diagnosis of dementia entails that at least two core mental purposes be lessened enough to affect with daily existing. Cognitive and Neuropsychological tests can be used to measure thinking skills. The memory treatment has been designated great significances for patients with dementia. The neurological evaluation is the treatment for problem-solving, visual perception and movement. Brain scans are like CT or MRI and PET scans are shows the patters of the brain activity if the amyloid protein had been deposited in the brain. The Conference on Vascular Dementia 2019 has taken one segment closer to dementia therapy.

According to the research, the estimated the burden of late-onset dementia in the UK over 2025 and weigh the impact of potential interventions. The compute infirmity adjusted life years over 2025 and consider 3 interventions, all assumes launched in 2018; an expectant restrictive case of a 100% preventive intervention with instant uptake of 100% of the population at risk; an intervention which delays onset by 5 years, linear uptake to 50% after 5 years; but uptake 75% after 5 years.

By 2025, the disability-adjusted life years burden will have increased by 42% from the Global Disease Burden 2010 as estimated. Intervention results: some 9% decreases by 2025; a 33% increases; and a 28% increases.

Dementia may be a progressive, irreversible decline in intelligence that, by definition, impacts on a patient pre-existing level of functioning. The clinical syndrome of dementedness has many etiologies of that Alzheimer’s sickness is that the most typical.

Drug development in Alzheimer’s sickness is predicated on evolving pathophysiological theory. Sickness modifying approaches embrace the targeting of amyloid process, aggregation of alphabetic character, endocrine signal, neuro-inflammation and neurochemical pathology, with efforts to date yielding abandoned hopes and current promise. Reflective its dominance on the pathophysiological stage the amyloid cascade is central to several of the rising drug therapies.